A new filter lets light pass through — but only if it's coming from just the right angle. Here, a light ray coming in at the 1-o’clock position reflects off the filter. But the other beam streaks straight on through.
This electron microscope image (in false color) shows sapwood after being used for water filtration. The sapwood’s pit membranes (red and blue) successfully trapped E. coli bacteria (the tiny, leaf-green-colored dots and rod shapes). This prevented the germs from passing through to the drinking water.
A community of animals camp out atop metal-rich sulfide ores at a hydrothermal vent 5 kilometers (3.1 miles) below the surface of the Caribbean Sea. The tiny dots in upper right are a new species of little brown snails. Bigger animals with shaggy ‘heads’ are anemones, which eat shrimp. Mini shrimps (lower center right) congregate by the dozens to thousands. The cottony white at center left is a mat of unusual bacteria.
Statisticians are experts in seeing the patterns hidden within the raw numbers called data. They especially excel at finding real trends, while eliminating what is actually due to chance. That’s why they offer a good reality check in any field that involves numbers.
Fracking is a three-step process. Gas companies first drill a well, then frack it, then harvest the gas, says David Blackmon, who works for a gas company in Houston called El Paso Corp.
First, the company builds a drill pad of about 24,000 square meters (about 258,000 square feet) in size. In order to create a clean surface from which to work, “We have to level off the ground and pave it with white, chalky caliche [kuh-lee-chee] rock,” Blackmon explains.